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71.025 (BF1994)


Phalera bucephala
Adult: 1
Resident. Common.



Life cycle

One generation. Overwinters as a pupa underground. Larvae are present from July to October, hatching from a large batch of eggs.

Larval foodplants

Larvae feed mostly on willows, birches and oaks, but also other broadleaved trees and shrubs.


Open woodland, scrub, hedgerows and gardens.

History 1860-2010

Lennon (1863) stated it to be generally distributed. Douglas Robinson (1870-71) had found the larvae abundant during August on Almorness (VC73). Gordon (1913) had found the larvae often abundant on various trees during August and September, but had found the imago only once, and that was on the high road at Corsemalzie on 29th June 1897.

During 1913-15 William Evans received specimens from Mowat, the Killantringan lighthouse keeper to aid his insect migration studies. Sir Arthur Duncan (1909-84) during his lifetime had found it at Closeburn, Tynron and Castlehill, Dumfries (all VC72).

During 1974-92 all seven Rothamsted stations recorded it in small numbers. Kirkton (VC72) and Cally Woods (VC73) have proved to be strongholds since, with many scattered records during 1993-2010, proving it to be a widespread species in small numbers.

1152 record(s) from 61 hectad(s) in D&G

VC74 VC73 VC72
Last recorded 2022 2022 2022

 UK Moths website - further information on species (with photos)

 East Scotland Butterfly Conservation website - national distribution maps and phenology

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